Clinical signs in animals

Sudden death

Oposthotonic form

Oedema

Dark non-clotting blood

Bleeding from the orifices

Shortly before death – fever, muscle tremors, convulsions and collapse

Clinical symptoms in humans:

Cutaneous infection

  • Fever
  • Itchy sores or painless ulcers
  • Redness and swelling
  • Black eschar

Inhalational infection

  • Febrile symptoms
    •  Fever/sweats
    •  Body aches
    •  Lethargy
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Coughing/wheezing
  • Headaches
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Swelling in neck/throat

Gastrointestinal infection

  • Fever
  • Weakness
  • Swelling in neck/throat
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Bloody emesis
  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Diarrhoea and bloody stools

Injectional infection (not yet reported in Africa)

  •  Fever
  •  Symptoms similar to cutaneous infection
  •  Abscesses in the muscle and around injection site
  •  Systemic infection/Septicaemia